JULY 10–14, 2019

The Future of the EU:
The Rise of Nationalism–
The Current EU-US Relationship

Nathalie Tocci

Director
Istituto Affari Internazionali

“What is the point of European integration today?” The rationales for EU integration continue to be peace, economic opportunity and political necessity for security in a global changing world. However, the European project is undergoing an existential crisis of identity, Ms. Tocci reported, as rising nationalism and alternative world economic and political models gain popularity, posing threats from within. A new dynamism driving renewal and rejuvenation of the EU is essential to maintain it as a framework for democratic governance in the region. And part of this evolution requires a rebalancing of the EU’s relationship with the US, with the EU shouldering more responsibility and the US showing greater respect for the EU.

The rationales for European integration continue to be security, economic opportunity, and political stability. However, these issues are viewed differently by different generations, Ms. Tocci pointed out. The older generation, with memories of a chaotic war-torn past, seeks peace and stability; while middle-aged people value the economic opportunities and the freedom to move, study, and marry throughout the EU; and, among the younger generation, for whom peace and stability is the norm, the focus is more global.

However, not everyone has a seat at the feast of global opportunities. Not everyone has access, aptitude, or education to benefit from the new economic opportunities offered by globalization. They form the support for the AfD and nationalist, populist movements.

Security

European integration is no longer helping people feel more secure, Ms. Tocci reported. The threat of terrorism is greater; in the South, states are collapsing; and to the East, an aggressive Russia looms.  Europe has become a competitive playground for the global powers--China, Russia, and the US. Trade wars among the powers contributes to European economic insecurity. Meanwhile, Russia’s policies are seen to be destabilizing the democratic process in the EU. And China, through its Belt and Road Initiative, is making its way into Europe with geoeconomic projects that conceal a strategic intent. The Transatlantic Relationship faces new challenges as the Trump Administration changes the rules of engagement and leverages tariffs as bargaining chips.

Defense

Insecurity leads to a greater focus on defense, the area where sovereignty is most guarded. But today defense is one promising area of EU cooperation, because even nationalists recognize that each European state is small and, for defense, “size matters.” It takes substantial investment to develop defense capabilities. Even with Brexit, Britain will still participate with the EU for defense integration.

Increasing insecurity is a force driving European integration because of the requirement for EU states to act together to address these insecurities. For the first time. Europeans states are taking small steps toward defense integration, realizing that they cannot afford 28 “bonsai armies.” What Europe wants is strategic autonomy, not protectionism. Europeans have collective decision-making structures and capabilities for defense, therefore, they are better able to act with partners to address security issues.

Economics

Trade is a key component of EU growth. Each member State is too small to have an effective negotiation with global conglomerates such as Google or Microsoft. By combining smaller States, the EU becomes a large enough market to have leverage.

Europeans share concerns about air, food, and water quality and, acting together, they have a greater opportunity to impact global issues that impact the economy such as climate mitigation.

Political Stability

Some segments inside the EU are attracted to closed modes of government and believe that democracy cannot deliver opportunity, Ms. Tocci pointed out.  Russia is an attractive model to some because it is a model of political power. For others, China is an attractive economic model, despite human rights abuses, because millions of Chinese are being lifted out of poverty. These segments view Western liberal democracies as being in decline. These dissident views highlight the critical importance of the EU as an essential framework to maintain democratic governance.

Brexit has raised concerns about the EU’s political stability, raising the specter that other may withdraw like dominoes falling? The greater risk, however, is a hollowing out from the center by nationalist segments, Ms. Tocci said.

Clearly, renewal and rejuvenation, a new dynamism, is necessary to reinvigorate the EU.

•  First, Social Europe must be strengthened by addressing unemployment issues and providing more opportunities for people to reap the fruits of globalization.

•  Second, the EU must take greater responsibility for internal security and defense. The $13.5 billion allocated for the European Defence Fund is a start toward this objective.

•  Third, a Green Agenda addressing the climate crisis must be articulated.

Part of the renewal of the EU also must include a rebalancing of the transatlantic relationship, Ms. Tocci pointed out. To date, in exchange for US protection, Europe has gone along with US initiatives even where they disagree, such as over US actions in the Middle East and Iraq. This asymmetry weakens the relationship. To strengthen it requires that the EU accept more responsibility, while the US acts with greater respect and collaboration with the EU as a partner, she concluded.

Discussion

Sen. Brent Hill, ID: Immigration issues also are a challenge in the US. Germany took in 750,000 immigrants. How were they integrated into schools and jobs? Is there a Path to Citizenship?

Ms. Tocci: The influx of immigrants put a great strain on agencies and resources. Originally, people were living in camps and shipping containers, in suboptimal conditions. Now they have been moved to homes and apartments. The agencies have worked through the onslaught of applications. This brings a greater sense of security, because now agencies can check identities and review asylum requests to filter out bad actors.

Still, the schools are strained and some classrooms are housed in containers. When one or two refugee children are integrated into classrooms, they make friends with and learn from their classmates. But when four or five immigrant children are together in a classroom, this creates a separate and isolated unit. Integration is more difficult and this puts a strain on teachers.

Dr. Sauerbrey: Because of the Holocaust, there is a strong commitment that refugees should find a safe place in Germany. Germany does not give citizenship but provides a temporary status that allows immigrants to stay until it is safe to return to their country of origin. But people cannot return to Syria anytime soon.

There are two separate tracks for immigrants. The refugee/asylum track permits only temporary residence. But people in this category cannot work, often don’t integrate well, and there is more criminal behavior. Work immigration can lead to permanent residency. Unfortunately, people cannot move from the asylum to the work category, so what is the point of training and employing people who will eventually be forced to move? Today, there is more discussion about allowing citizenship because the economy is good, the population is declining, and immigrants are needed as coworkers.

Tom Finneran, Moderator: Boris Johnson, Britain’s Prime Minister, has discussed amnesty but his Party has been anti-immigration. How is his stance likely to affect the EU?

Ms. Tocci: Immigration affects many issues and evokes a broad spectrum of views in the EU. From very anti- to very pro-immigrant. Small countries fear loss of identity if there are large inflows of immigrants. For some countries, such as the UK and France, a failure of earlier integration of immigrants raises concerns. And some countries fear that massive flows of immigrants would strain the country’s economic security. There are different effects anticipated in different countries. You have to separate out the issues of perception versus governance. What are the real fears of integration?

Ghettoes that concentrate immigrant populations limit integration. Germany does not have ghettoes of immigrants. Instead, Germany has spread immigrants throughout the country.

Steven Cook, Speaker: What is the importance of identity? The Fascists in Europe have stressed the importance of identity, culture, and civilization. We see the dark clouds of Fascism gathering. National identify is important in Europe: Brits are not Greeks. How can the Fascists be kept at bay? What does it mean to be European? What is the positive vision for the future?

Ms. Tocci: We recognize the importance of identity, but not the radicalized sense of identity promulgated by the Fascists. We have to communicate the complexity and the facts. Governance is the key. Regulated migration flows preserve identity. However, Fascist parties have become normalized; for example, 23% of the vote in France went to Jean-Marie Le Pen, the French right-wing and nationalist politician. If they get into power, they will change the laws.

Dr. Sauerbrey: Identity is an important factor, but equally important are economic drivers and social benefits. Are immigrants seen as contributing to the economy or as a drain on social services? About 20% of the German population has xenophobic views. Now they have the AdF to mobilize them and encourage them to vote, and the AdF captured 12% of the vote in 2017. However, the big wave and focus on immigration is over and new issues have become more prominent.

Speaker Biography

Nathalie Tocci

Nathalie Tocci is Director of the Istituto Affari Internazionali, Honorary Professor at the University of Tübingen, and Special Adviser to EU HRVP Federica Mogherini, on behalf of whom she wrote the European Global Strategy and is now working on its implementation, notably in the field of security and defence.

Previously she held research positions at the Centre for European Policy Studies, Brussels, the Transatlantic Academy, Washington and the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, Florence.

Her research interests include European foreign policy, conflict resolution, the Middle East and the Mediterranean.

Her major publications include: Framing the EU's Global Strategy, Springer-Palgrave Macmillan, 2017 (author); The EU, Promoting Regional Integration, and Conflict Resolution, Springer-Palgrave Macmillan, 2017 (co-editor); Turkey and the European Union, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015 (co-author); Multilateralism in the 21st Century, Routledge, 2013 (co-editor), Turkey’s European Future: Behind the Scenes of America’s Influence on EU-Turkey Relations, New York University Press, 2011 (author); and The EU and Conflict Resolution, Routledge, 2007 (author).

Nathalie is the 2008 winner of the Anna Lindh award for the study of European Foreign Policy.

The rationales for European integration continue to be security, economic opportunity, and political stability.

Europe has become a competitive playground for the global powers--China, Russia, and the US.

Europeans states are taking small steps toward defense integration, realizing that they cannot afford 28 “bonsai armies.”

Clearly, renewal and rejuvenation, a new dynamism, is necessary to reinvigorate the EU.

Part of the renewal of the EU also must include a rebalancing of the transatlantic relationship.

Nathalie Tocci

What does it mean to be European?

Regulated migration flows preserve identity.

Sen. Brent Hill (ID)

Tom Finneran (Moderator)

Steven Cook (Speaker)

CONTACT

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Tel: 914-693-1818

Copyright © 2019 Senate Presidents' Forum. All rights reserved.

JULY 10–14, 2019

The Future of the EU:
The Rise of Nationalism–
The Current EU-US Relationship

Nathalie Tocci

Director
Istituto Affari Internazionali

“What is the point of European integration today?” The rationales for EU integration continue to be peace, economic opportunity and political necessity for security in a global changing world. However, the European project is undergoing an existential crisis of identity, Ms. Tocci reported, as rising nationalism and alternative world economic and political models gain popularity, posing threats from within. A new dynamism driving renewal and rejuvenation of the EU is essential to maintain it as a framework for democratic governance in the region. And part of this evolution requires a rebalancing of the EU’s relationship with the US, with the EU shouldering more responsibility and the US showing greater respect for the EU.

The rationales for European integration continue to be security, economic opportunity, and political stability. However, these issues are viewed differently by different generations, Ms. Tocci pointed out. The older generation, with memories of a chaotic war-torn past, seeks peace and stability; while middle-aged people value the economic opportunities and the freedom to move, study, and marry throughout the EU; and, among the younger generation, for whom peace and stability is the norm, the focus is more global.

The rationales for European integration continue to be security, economic opportunity, and political stability.

However, not everyone has a seat at the feast of global opportunities. Not everyone has access, aptitude, or education to benefit from the new economic opportunities offered by globalization. They form the support for the AfD and nationalist, populist movements.

Security

European integration is no longer helping people feel more secure, Ms. Tocci reported. The threat of terrorism is greater; in the South, states are collapsing; and to the East, an aggressive Russia looms.  Europe has become a competitive playground for the global powers--China, Russia, and the US. Trade wars among the powers contributes to European economic insecurity. Meanwhile, Russia’s policies are seen to be destabilizing the democratic process in the EU. And China, through its Belt and Road Initiative, is making its way into Europe with geoeconomic projects that conceal a strategic intent. The Transatlantic Relationship faces new challenges as the Trump Administration changes the rules of engagement and leverages tariffs as bargaining chips.

Europe has become a competitive playground for the global powers--China, Russia, and the US.

Defense

Insecurity leads to a greater focus on defense, the area where sovereignty is most guarded. But today defense is one promising area of EU cooperation, because even nationalists recognize that each European state is small and, for defense, “size matters.” It takes substantial investment to develop defense capabilities. Even with Brexit, Britain will still participate with the EU for defense integration.

Increasing insecurity is a force driving European integration because of the requirement for EU states to act together to address these insecurities. For the first time. Europeans states are taking small steps toward defense integration, realizing that they cannot afford 28 “bonsai armies.” What Europe wants is strategic autonomy, not protectionism. Europeans have collective decision-making structures and capabilities for defense, therefore, they are better able to act with partners to address security issues.

Europeans states are taking small steps toward defense integration, realizing that they cannot afford 28 “bonsai armies.”

Economics

Trade is a key component of EU growth. Each member State is too small to have an effective negotiation with global conglomerates such as Google or Microsoft. By combining smaller States, the EU becomes a large enough market to have leverage.

Europeans share concerns about air, food, and water quality and, acting together, they have a greater opportunity to impact global issues that impact the economy such as climate mitigation.

Political Stability

Some segments inside the EU are attracted to closed modes of government and believe that democracy cannot deliver opportunity, Ms. Tocci pointed out.  Russia is an attractive model to some because it is a model of political power. For others, China is an attractive economic model, despite human rights abuses, because millions of Chinese are being lifted out of poverty. These segments view Western liberal democracies as being in decline. These dissident views highlight the critical importance of the EU as an essential framework to maintain democratic governance.

Brexit has raised concerns about the EU’s political stability, raising the specter that other may withdraw like dominoes falling? The greater risk, however, is a hollowing out from the center by nationalist segments, Ms. Tocci said.

Clearly, renewal and rejuvenation, a new dynamism, is necessary to reinvigorate the EU.

•  First, Social Europe must be strengthened by addressing unemployment issues and providing more opportunities for people to reap the fruits of globalization.

•  Second, the EU must take greater responsibility for internal security and defense. The $13.5 billion allocated for the European Defence Fund is a start toward this objective.

•  Third, a Green Agenda addressing the climate crisis must be articulated.

Clearly, renewal and rejuvenation, a new dynamism, is necessary to reinvigorate the EU.

Part of the renewal of the EU also must include a rebalancing of the transatlantic relationship, Ms. Tocci pointed out. To date, in exchange for US protection, Europe has gone along with US initiatives even where they disagree, such as over US actions in the Middle East and Iraq. This asymmetry weakens the relationship. To strengthen it requires that the EU accept more responsibility, while the US acts with greater respect and collaboration with the EU as a partner, she concluded.

Part of the renewal of the EU also must include a rebalancing of the transatlantic relationship.

Discussion

Sen. Brent Hill, ID: Immigration issues also are a challenge in the US. Germany took in 750,000 immigrants. How were they integrated into schools and jobs? Is there a Path to Citizenship?

Ms. Tocci: The influx of immigrants put a great strain on agencies and resources. Originally, people were living in camps and shipping containers, in suboptimal conditions. Now they have been moved to homes and apartments. The agencies have worked through the onslaught of applications. This brings a greater sense of security, because now agencies can check identities and review asylum requests to filter out bad actors.

Still, the schools are strained and some classrooms are housed in containers. When one or two refugee children are integrated into classrooms, they make friends with and learn from their classmates. But when four or five immigrant children are together in a classroom, this creates a separate and isolated unit. Integration is more difficult and this puts a strain on teachers.

Dr. Sauerbrey: Because of the Holocaust, there is a strong commitment that refugees should find a safe place in Germany. Germany does not give citizenship but provides a temporary status that allows immigrants to stay until it is safe to return to their country of origin. But people cannot return to Syria anytime soon.

There are two separate tracks for immigrants. The refugee/asylum track permits only temporary residence. But people in this category cannot work, often don’t integrate well, and there is more criminal behavior. Work immigration can lead to permanent residency. Unfortunately, people cannot move from the asylum to the work category, so what is the point of training and employing people who will eventually be forced to move? Today, there is more discussion about allowing citizenship because the economy is good, the population is declining, and immigrants are needed as coworkers.

Tom Finneran, Moderator: Boris Johnson, Britain’s Prime Minister, has discussed amnesty but his Party has been anti-immigration. How is his stance likely to affect the EU?

Ms. Tocci: Immigration affects many issues and evokes a broad spectrum of views in the EU. From very anti- to very pro-immigrant. Small countries fear loss of identity if there are large inflows of immigrants. For some countries, such as the UK and France, a failure of earlier integration of immigrants raises concerns. And some countries fear that massive flows of immigrants would strain the country’s economic security. There are different effects anticipated in different countries. You have to separate out the issues of perception versus governance. What are the real fears of integration?

Ghettoes that concentrate immigrant populations limit integration. Germany does not have ghettoes of immigrants. Instead, Germany has spread immigrants throughout the country.

Steven Cook, Speaker: What is the importance of identity? The Fascists in Europe have stressed the importance of identity, culture, and civilization. We see the dark clouds of Fascism gathering. National identify is important in Europe: Brits are not Greeks. How can the Fascists be kept at bay? What does it mean to be European? What is the positive vision for the future?

What does it mean to be European?

Ms. Tocci: We recognize the importance of identity, but not the radicalized sense of identity promulgated by the Fascists. We have to communicate the complexity and the facts. Governance is the key. Regulated migration flows preserve identity. However, Fascist parties have become normalized; for example, 23% of the vote in France went to Jean-Marie Le Pen, the French right-wing and nationalist politician. If they get into power, they will change the laws.

Regulated migration flows preserve identity.

Dr. Sauerbrey: Identity is an important factor, but equally important are economic drivers and social benefits. Are immigrants seen as contributing to the economy or as a drain on social services? About 20% of the German population has xenophobic views. Now they have the AdF to mobilize them and encourage them to vote, and the AdF captured 12% of the vote in 2017. However, the big wave and focus on immigration is over and new issues have become more prominent.

Speaker Biography

Nathalie Tocci

Nathalie Tocci is Director of the Istituto Affari Internazionali, Honorary Professor at the University of Tübingen, and Special Adviser to EU HRVP Federica Mogherini, on behalf of whom she wrote the European Global Strategy and is now working on its implementation, notably in the field of security and defence.

Previously she held research positions at the Centre for European Policy Studies, Brussels, the Transatlantic Academy, Washington and the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, Florence.

Her research interests include European foreign policy, conflict resolution, the Middle East and the Mediterranean.

Her major publications include: Framing the EU's Global Strategy, Springer-Palgrave Macmillan, 2017 (author); The EU, Promoting Regional Integration, and Conflict Resolution, Springer-Palgrave Macmillan, 2017 (co-editor); Turkey and the European Union, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015 (co-author); Multilateralism in the 21st Century, Routledge, 2013 (co-editor), Turkey’s European Future: Behind the Scenes of America’s Influence on EU-Turkey Relations, New York University Press, 2011 (author); and The EU and Conflict Resolution, Routledge, 2007 (author).

Nathalie is the 2008 winner of the Anna Lindh award for the study of European Foreign Policy.

JULY 10–14, 2019

The Future of the EU:
The Rise of Nationalism–
The Current EU-US Relationship

Nathalie Tocci

Director
Istituto Affari Internazionali

“What is the point of European integration today?” The rationales for EU integration continue to be peace, economic opportunity and political necessity for security in a global changing world. However, the European project is undergoing an existential crisis of identity, Ms. Tocci reported, as rising nationalism and alternative world economic and political models gain popularity, posing threats from within. A new dynamism driving renewal and rejuvenation of the EU is essential to maintain it as a framework for democratic governance in the region. And part of this evolution requires a rebalancing of the EU’s relationship with the US, with the EU shouldering more responsibility and the US showing greater respect for the EU.

The rationales for European integration continue to be security, economic opportunity, and political stability. However, these issues are viewed differently by different generations, Ms. Tocci pointed out. The older generation, with memories of a chaotic war-torn past, seeks peace and stability; while middle-aged people value the economic opportunities and the freedom to move, study, and marry throughout the EU; and, among the younger generation, for whom peace and stability is the norm, the focus is more global.

The rationales for European integration continue to be security, economic opportunity, and political stability.

However, not everyone has a seat at the feast of global opportunities. Not everyone has access, aptitude, or education to benefit from the new economic opportunities offered by globalization. They form the support for the AfD and nationalist, populist movements.

Security

European integration is no longer helping people feel more secure, Ms. Tocci reported. The threat of terrorism is greater; in the South, states are collapsing; and to the East, an aggressive Russia looms.  Europe has become a competitive playground for the global powers--China, Russia, and the US. Trade wars among the powers contributes to European economic insecurity. Meanwhile, Russia’s policies are seen to be destabilizing the democratic process in the EU. And China, through its Belt and Road Initiative, is making its way into Europe with geoeconomic projects that conceal a strategic intent. The Transatlantic Relationship faces new challenges as the Trump Administration changes the rules of engagement and leverages tariffs as bargaining chips.

Europe has become a competitive playground for the global powers--China, Russia, and the US.

Defense

Insecurity leads to a greater focus on defense, the area where sovereignty is most guarded. But today defense is one promising area of EU cooperation, because even nationalists recognize that each European state is small and, for defense, “size matters.” It takes substantial investment to develop defense capabilities. Even with Brexit, Britain will still participate with the EU for defense integration.

Increasing insecurity is a force driving European integration because of the requirement for EU states to act together to address these insecurities. For the first time. Europeans states are taking small steps toward defense integration, realizing that they cannot afford 28 “bonsai armies.” What Europe wants is strategic autonomy, not protectionism. Europeans have collective decision-making structures and capabilities for defense, therefore, they are better able to act with partners to address security issues.

Europeans states are taking small steps toward defense integration, realizing that they cannot afford 28 “bonsai armies.”

Economics

Trade is a key component of EU growth. Each member State is too small to have an effective negotiation with global conglomerates such as Google or Microsoft. By combining smaller States, the EU becomes a large enough market to have leverage.

Europeans share concerns about air, food, and water quality and, acting together, they have a greater opportunity to impact global issues that impact the economy such as climate mitigation.

Political Stability

Some segments inside the EU are attracted to closed modes of government and believe that democracy cannot deliver opportunity, Ms. Tocci pointed out.  Russia is an attractive model to some because it is a model of political power. For others, China is an attractive economic model, despite human rights abuses, because millions of Chinese are being lifted out of poverty. These segments view Western liberal democracies as being in decline. These dissident views highlight the critical importance of the EU as an essential framework to maintain democratic governance.

Brexit has raised concerns about the EU’s political stability, raising the specter that other may withdraw like dominoes falling? The greater risk, however, is a hollowing out from the center by nationalist segments, Ms. Tocci said.

Clearly, renewal and rejuvenation, a new dynamism, is necessary to reinvigorate the EU.

•  First, Social Europe must be strengthened by addressing unemployment issues and providing more opportunities for people to reap the fruits of globalization.

•  Second, the EU must take greater responsibility for internal security and defense. The $13.5 billion allocated for the European Defence Fund is a start toward this objective.

•  Third, a Green Agenda addressing the climate crisis must be articulated.

Clearly, renewal and rejuvenation, a new dynamism, is necessary to reinvigorate the EU.

Part of the renewal of the EU also must include a rebalancing of the transatlantic relationship, Ms. Tocci pointed out. To date, in exchange for US protection, Europe has gone along with US initiatives even where they disagree, such as over US actions in the Middle East and Iraq. This asymmetry weakens the relationship. To strengthen it requires that the EU accept more responsibility, while the US acts with greater respect and collaboration with the EU as a partner, she concluded.

Part of the renewal of the EU also must include a rebalancing of the transatlantic relationship.

Discussion

Sen. Brent Hill, ID: Immigration issues also are a challenge in the US. Germany took in 750,000 immigrants. How were they integrated into schools and jobs? Is there a Path to Citizenship?

Ms. Tocci: The influx of immigrants put a great strain on agencies and resources. Originally, people were living in camps and shipping containers, in suboptimal conditions. Now they have been moved to homes and apartments. The agencies have worked through the onslaught of applications. This brings a greater sense of security, because now agencies can check identities and review asylum requests to filter out bad actors.

Still, the schools are strained and some classrooms are housed in containers. When one or two refugee children are integrated into classrooms, they make friends with and learn from their classmates. But when four or five immigrant children are together in a classroom, this creates a separate and isolated unit. Integration is more difficult and this puts a strain on teachers.

Dr. Sauerbrey: Because of the Holocaust, there is a strong commitment that refugees should find a safe place in Germany. Germany does not give citizenship but provides a temporary status that allows immigrants to stay until it is safe to return to their country of origin. But people cannot return to Syria anytime soon.

There are two separate tracks for immigrants. The refugee/asylum track permits only temporary residence. But people in this category cannot work, often don’t integrate well, and there is more criminal behavior. Work immigration can lead to permanent residency. Unfortunately, people cannot move from the asylum to the work category, so what is the point of training and employing people who will eventually be forced to move? Today, there is more discussion about allowing citizenship because the economy is good, the population is declining, and immigrants are needed as coworkers.

Tom Finneran, Moderator: Boris Johnson, Britain’s Prime Minister, has discussed amnesty but his Party has been anti-immigration. How is his stance likely to affect the EU?

Ms. Tocci: Immigration affects many issues and evokes a broad spectrum of views in the EU. From very anti- to very pro-immigrant. Small countries fear loss of identity if there are large inflows of immigrants. For some countries, such as the UK and France, a failure of earlier integration of immigrants raises concerns. And some countries fear that massive flows of immigrants would strain the country’s economic security. There are different effects anticipated in different countries. You have to separate out the issues of perception versus governance. What are the real fears of integration?

Ghettoes that concentrate immigrant populations limit integration. Germany does not have ghettoes of immigrants. Instead, Germany has spread immigrants throughout the country.

Steven Cook, Speaker: What is the importance of identity? The Fascists in Europe have stressed the importance of identity, culture, and civilization. We see the dark clouds of Fascism gathering. National identify is important in Europe: Brits are not Greeks. How can the Fascists be kept at bay? What does it mean to be European? What is the positive vision for the future?

What does it mean to be European?

Ms. Tocci: We recognize the importance of identity, but not the radicalized sense of identity promulgated by the Fascists. We have to communicate the complexity and the facts. Governance is the key. Regulated migration flows preserve identity. However, Fascist parties have become normalized; for example, 23% of the vote in France went to Jean-Marie Le Pen, the French right-wing and nationalist politician. If they get into power, they will change the laws.

Regulated migration flows preserve identity.

Dr. Sauerbrey: Identity is an important factor, but equally important are economic drivers and social benefits. Are immigrants seen as contributing to the economy or as a drain on social services? About 20% of the German population has xenophobic views. Now they have the AdF to mobilize them and encourage them to vote, and the AdF captured 12% of the vote in 2017. However, the big wave and focus on immigration is over and new issues have become more prominent.

Speaker Biography

Nathalie Tocci

Nathalie Tocci is Director of the Istituto Affari Internazionali, Honorary Professor at the University of Tübingen, and Special Adviser to EU HRVP Federica Mogherini, on behalf of whom she wrote the European Global Strategy and is now working on its implementation, notably in the field of security and defence.

Previously she held research positions at the Centre for European Policy Studies, Brussels, the Transatlantic Academy, Washington and the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, Florence.

Her research interests include European foreign policy, conflict resolution, the Middle East and the Mediterranean.

Her major publications include: Framing the EU's Global Strategy, Springer-Palgrave Macmillan, 2017 (author); The EU, Promoting Regional Integration, and Conflict Resolution, Springer-Palgrave Macmillan, 2017 (co-editor); Turkey and the European Union, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015 (co-author); Multilateralism in the 21st Century, Routledge, 2013 (co-editor), Turkey’s European Future: Behind the Scenes of America’s Influence on EU-Turkey Relations, New York University Press, 2011 (author); and The EU and Conflict Resolution, Routledge, 2007 (author).

Nathalie is the 2008 winner of the Anna Lindh award for the study of European Foreign Policy.